The solution used in these treatments is made of Botulinum A toxin, a purified protein made from a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. The toxin acts by blocking the conduction between nerve fibers and end organs. This solution temporarily paralyzes nerves of the facial muscles so that they cannot contract and cause facial wrinkles in the area being treated. Conduction blockage makes the function of the organs either reduced or totally lost. Botox injection has proven safe and efficient in the treatment of a variety of disorders in medicine. In plastic surgery, it is used for reducing the facial wrinkles that become visible by movement of mimic muscles and decreasing the excess sweating of particular regions.
The movements of the mimic muscles for years cause to dynamic wrinkling of covering skin. Dynamic facial wrinkles mostly appear on the forehead, between the brows, around the eyes and around the mouth. The facial wrinkles on the forehead and around the eyes cause the person looks older; the wrinkles between the brows cause the person looks angry and beetle-browed. The movement of the mimic muscles is reduced by botox injections, weakening the muscle and reduced movement make the wrinkles disappeared on the covering skin. Therefore more youthful look can be gained.
Botox can reduce the function of the sweat glands as blocking the conduction between nerve fibers and sweat glands. Mostly sweating regions on the body are palms and armpits. Botox improves the complaints of excessive sweating where injected into the particular regions.
Botox injections are brief and simple. Botox is strategically injected into the mimic muscles for muscle weakening and/or into the sweat glands for reducing the sweating. There is some discomfort involved with the injections, but the discomfort is slight. The feeling has been likened to an insect bite. After the procedure, there is virtually no pain. The results of the procedure are generally visible within first week. Although results vary, the results of an individual treatment last for about 5 to 6 months. The procedure may be repeated and, with each new treatment, the results tend to last longer. When the botox is injected regularly more than two years, it would be better if the injections are done at infrequent intervals thereafter. Otherwise changing of the facial expression may be observed.
Mild bruising or swelling may occur at the site of the injection. In rare cases, the injections may cause the eyebrow or upper eyelid to droop, but this condition is temporary and corrects itself without treatment within 2 to 3 weeks. There is no side effect of the botox, but the effects to pregnancy and lactation have not been proved. Therefore botox injections are not recommended during pregnancy and lactation. Botox should not be injected to the patients with neuromuscular disorders such as Eaton-Lambert Syndrome and myasthenia gravis.